BRIEF BIOGRAPHIES OF GREAT BELIEVING
composer born of a family of renowned musicians. Composer of many famed
orchestral works, chief of which are his Brandenburg Concertos.
Bach specialised in church music and composed 265 Cantatas. He also wrote
extensively for the organ and harpsichord. Today he is considered to be
one of the world's
chancellor of England, philosopher, essayist and statesman. Was a foremost
representative of British empirical philosophy? He stressed the importance
of observation in scientific enquiry. Wrote The Advancement of
Learning and Novum Organum which led to the development of
modern science. A man of letters whose Essays and other writings
mark him as a master of English prose.
some to have been the poet of modern civilization. Rejected Romanticism
and became a seeker of God searching Him in every manifestation of
creation. Was the main French translator of Edgar Allan Poe. He influenced
the French school of advanced poetry. His major work is Les Fleurs Du
writer and philanthropist. Authored Uncle Tom=s
Cabin, a book which
contributed to popular feelings against slavery and the ensuing civil war.
Wrote many studies of social life and published religious poems. Some of
her other works are The Mayflower and Dred: a Tale of the Great
Dismal Swamp, many studies of social life in both fiction and essay
and religious poems.
composer and creator of unparalleled original music.
Composed many great works chief
among which are 9 magnificent symphonies, the Moonlight and
Appassionata sonatas, the opera Fidelio, the Rasoumoffsky
Quartets and two superb masses. While totally deaf, he composed the
magnificent 9th symphony. His music is considered to have
reached heights never exceeded since.
vitalist philosopher. He reacted against the static materialism of the
ninenteenth century. Postulated a Dynamic Life Force which can be
recognized intuitively. Called an anti-intellectual by academics. He made
significant contributions to metaphysics and has deeply influenced the
artists and poets of his age. He is considered to have influenced William
James, George Santayana and Alfred North Whitehead.
painter, poet and engraver and visionary mystic. Considered one of the
earliest and most important figures of the Romantic movement. Wrote and
illustrated his own books. Blake=s
favourite subjects were scenes from the Bible and Dante=s
works. Some of his finest works are “The Marriage of Heaven and Hell,”
“Visions of the daughters of Albion” and “Songs
of Innocence and experience.”
(1440 ?- 1494)
and Count of Scandiano. Wrote the chivalrous epics Orlando Innamorato
and Orlando Furioso which combine elements of Arthurian and
Carolingian traditions of romance. Loved study and poetry and wrote many
works in both Latin and Italian. Future epic writers emulated and expanded
on his style.
novelist and poet. Considered by some to be the greatest of the Bronte
sisters. Only wrote the highly imaginative novel: Wuthering Heights.
Little is known about her because of her reserved life. Her contributions
in the area of poetry indicate, according to some, true poetic genius.
and wife of famed English poet Robert Browning. Known predominantly for
her love poems. Wrote Sonnets from the
but her most ambitious work was
Aurora Leigh which became a huge popular success. Spent the last years
of her life in Italy where she died in her husbands arms.
poet of the Victorian age. His greatest work was The Ring and the
Book. Also wrote Paracelsus, Sordello and a great
number of poems. Married Elizabeth Barrett with whom he had a very happy
marriage. In his last years wrote long narrative and dramatic poems often
dealing with contemporary themes. Influenced many modern poets such as
Robert Frost and Ezra Pound.
Renaissance philosopher, astronomer and mathematician whose theories
anticipated modern science. Burned at the stake because declared
heretical. Saw God as the only reality. Wrote metaphysical works,
dialogues, satire and poetry. Stands as one of the most important figures
in the history of western thought.
philosopher, poet and writer. Sought to reconcile Renaissance Humanism
with Roman Catholic theology. Best remembered for his work Citta Del
Sole, written while he was a prisoner of the Spanish Inquisition.
While in prison, he wrote poetry which is considered to be the most
original of the period. He also wrote a collection of thirty books titled
painter and one of the greatest post-impressionists. Influenced many other
artists and the Cubism movement. Specialized mostly in landscapes and
still lifes. Created many masterpieces such as
The Mills of Gardane,
The Card Players
The Boy in a Red Waist Coat.
His finest achievements were
his final years when he created many masterpieces.
Considered to be the greatest English poet preceding Shakespeare.
Traveled across Europe as an
English diplomat .Wrote Book of the Duchesse, an elegy for the
Duchess of Lancaster, Hours of Fame, a love vision narrative poem
and the romance Troylus and Criseyde. His greatest work
is his unfinished masterpiece, Canterbury Tales, ranked as one of
the greatest poetic works in English.
playwright, foremost master of the modern short story and a major
representative of the Russian realist school of the late 19th century.
Some of his greatest masterpieces are The Seagull, Uncle Vanya, Three
Sisters and The Cherry Orchard. Today he is chiefly known for
his plays, but critical opinion increasingly views his stories as greater.
astronomer. Famous for being the proponent of the idea that the earth
rotates around its axis and around the sun. Wrote the Commentariolus
a manuscript summary of his theory and later his complete work De
Revolutionibus Orbum Celestium. His views had a profound impact on
science and philosophy.
poet of the Renaissance. Also a prose writer, literary theorist, moral
philosopher and political thinker. Wrote many important works such as
The New Life, Il Convivio and De Monarchia. His greatest
work, the Christian epic, The Divine Comedy, is considered to be
one of the landmarks in world literature.
DA VINCI, LEONARDO
painter, sculptor, architect and engineer. Revolutionized Italian painting
by emphasizing soft transitions in light. In science, he anticipated the
invention of planes and submarines. Executed some of the finest anatomical
drawings ever achieved. Painted the famed
and The Last Supper.
He is considered to be one of the
greatest geniuses of all time.
novelist and political writer. The publication of The Review was a
landmark in English journalism. Wrote the world famous Robinson
Crusoe, Moll Flanders, Roxana and Journal of the Plague
Years. His style is said to have been influenced by the Bible, John
Bunyan and the pulpit oratory of the day.
painter. Major proponent of the French Romantic movement. His use of
colours influenced both Impressionist and Post-Impressionist movements.
His inspiration came chiefly from historical and contemporary events.
Some of his most famous masterpieces are “Dante and Virgil in Hell,” “
Liberty Leading the People” and “Death at Sardanapalus.”
writer of the
(Naturalistic) school of Italian literature. Was awarded the Nobel Prize
for literature in 1926. One of her favourite themes was the effect of
temptation and sin among primitive human beings. Her most important works
are Dopo il Divorzio (After the Divorce), Elias Portolu, and
philosopher and mathematician. Also called Cartesius. Founded modern
philosophy and was one of the world's
most influential thinkers. His foundational principle is expressed in his
"I Think Therefore I Am."
Believed God's existence
to be a self-evident truth. Made significant contributions to physical
to be the greatest English novelist of the Victorian era. Heavily
interested in social injustices and dedicated to producing social reforms.
Wrote world-famous works such as Oliver Twist, A Christmas Carol, David
Copperfield, Great Expectations and A tale of Two Cities.
Ranked by some as the greatest English novelist.
of the metaphysical school and dean of St. Paul cathedral in London.
Started with lyric poetry. Later he wrote intensely religious poetry and
became known for his eloquent sermons. Had a powerful influence on the
writers of the 17th and 20th century. Wrote Devotions upon Emergent
Essays on the Divinity.
novelist journalist and short story writer. His novels explore human
freedom, the justification of religion and psychological conflicts. Among
his greatest works are Crime and Punishment and The Brothers
Karamazov. His understanding of the dark side of the human mind and
his profound insights had a profound impact on the 20th century
poet, critic and dramatist. Made poet laureate by Charles II. Wrote
several plays such as The Indian Princess, The conquest of Granada
and Auren-Zebe. Known primarily as a poet. Author of
Ode for St.
and Ode to the Memory of Mrs. Anne Killigrew.
German-American physicist. Most famous for conceiving the general theory
of relativity. Also contributed a mathematical description of Brownian
movement and to the quantum theory. Was awarded
the Nobel prize in physics in 1921. His scientific contributions are
recognized as the most important of the century.
poet. A leader of the Modernist movement in poetry. He was very
influential over 20th century culture in the period between the two world
wars. Received the Nobel Prize for literature in 1948. Some of his best
poetic works are Prufock and Other
and The Waste Land.
Among his best known plays in verse are Murder in the Cathedral, Family
Reunion, The Cocktail Party and The Elder Statesman.
essayist, lecturer and the leading exponent of New England
transcendentalists. Known for his inspirational writings such as Nature
and The American Scholar. Some of his best known poetic works are
The Rhodora, and Condor Hymn.
His works stressed, above all,
the spiritual potential of man.
philosopher and disciple of Kant. One of the greatest transcendental
idealists. Believed that knowledge and love of God were the end of life
and that the divine order of the universe was the highest aspect of the
life of reason. Wrote The Vocations of Man, The Characteristics of the
Present Age and The Way Toward the Blessed
English novelist and playwright. Considered to be one
of the national founders of the English novel. Among his major works are
Joseph Andrews, Tom Jones and Life and Death of Tom Thumb.
His works abound in a concern for morality and compassion for human weaknesses.
statesman, scientist, philosopher, inventor, publisher and scientist.
Spent much time in scientific pursuits. Helped draft The Declaration of
Independence of which he was a signer, and helped draw up The
American Constitution. At the end of the Revolutionary war, he was one
of the diplomats chosen to negotiate peace with Britain. He also
contributed to science with his experiments in electricity.
scientist, mathematician, astronomer and physicist. Considered a founder
of the experimental method. Supported the Copernican Theory and was
declared a heretic as a result. His major works are Dialogue
Concerning Two Chief World Systems and Dialogue Concerning Two New
Sciences. Proposed the Law of Uniform Acceleration for falling bodies,
developed the astronomical telescope, discovered craters on the moon and
showed that the Milky Way is composed of stars.
the most distinguished man of science in England during the reign of Queen
Elizabeth the First. His major work, On the Great Magnet of the Earth,
describes fully his research into magnetic bodies and their electrical
attractions. He concluded many things about astronomy which where later
proven to be true.
composer. After producing operas in current styles for 20 years, he
produced the revolutionary Orfeo and Euridice, characterized
by simplicity, naturalism and an emphasis on drama rather than vocal
virtuosity. Composed the operas Alceste, Iphigenio, and Aulide
which departed from tradition because French librettos were used.
Influenced Mozart and Cherubini.
novelist, playwright and natural philosopher. The greatest figure of the
German Romantic Period. His greatest work, Faust, dramatizes the
battle between good and evil and is considered to be the greatest
masterpiece in German literature. His written works are contained in 133
volumes (Weimar edition).
born, Russian humorist, dramatist and novelist. By writing Dead Souls,
considered to be his masterpiece, and The Overcoat, he established
the foundations of the great 19th century tradition of Russian Realism.
Preaching and pleasing God were his first aims until the end of his life.
Believed that God had endowed him with literary talent to teach the
Russians the righteous way of living in an unrighteous world.
composer. Combined German and Italian styles, and later English and
French. Composed successfully in Italy and England. Wrote 46 operas and
then moved to compose Oratorios. Among his best are Israel in Egypt
and Samson and Jeptha. His most loved oratorio remains his
Messiah. Was particularly appreciated by the British people for his
sense of charity and concern for other people.
English physician who discovered the true nature
of the circulation of blood and of the heart as a pump. Was appointed
physician extraordinary to the king. His major work is On the Motion of
the Heart and Blood of Animals. Harvey's
exacting scientific method of research influenced scientific research for
composer. Wrote 85 string quartets and 104 symphonies. While visiting
London, he composed the two greatest works of his old age. The Creation
and The Seasons. In 1797 he wrote The Emperor's
Hymn, which became Austria's
national anthem. Has been called the father of symphony for his
development of symphonic form and orchestration.
idealist philosopher who created the dialectical scheme. He influenced the
development of Existentialism, Positivism and Analytic Philosophy. Some of
his great works are The phenomenology of the mind, The science
of logic and The philosophy of right. Taught that matter
was the counterpart of spirit. Was one of the foremost exponents of
Idealism. He conceived the very influential concept of "Dialectic,"
that is that thesis and antithesis will lead to synthesis.
German-Jewish poet. Wrote Romanzero which contains some of
his finest poems and Poems 1853-1854, considered to be of the same
caliber. Accepted the idea of a personal God after falling gravely ill.
Wrote many satires in prose and poetry on German life and the unfairnesses
of the social order. His works were banned during the Nazi regime.
the French tradition of Neo Classical painting after David. Heavily
influenced by Raphael, he was the leading classicist of his period and an
excellent draftsman. His works are today found in some of the world's
greatest museums. Because of his fame, he was made a life-long senator and
received many honours.
Some of his greatest works are
Turkish women at the Bath, and great portraits
such as Mme Poitessier and La Comtesse
metaphysician and philosopher whose work in the theory of knowledge,
ethics and aesthetics had a very strong influence on subsequent philosophy
.His greatest works are Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of
Practical reason, Critique of Judgement and Religion within
the Boundaries of Pure Reason. In addition to he also wrote various
scientific works. He is considered to be one of the greatest modern
German-Jewish writer of visionary fiction, which expresses the anxieties
of 20th century man.
In philosophy, Kafka
is akin to the Danish thinker Søren Kierkegaard and to 20th-century
existentialists. His work has the qualities both of expressionism and of
surrealism. His best
works are The Judgement, The Castle and The Metamorphoses.
Was rediscovered after WW II and had a strong influence on German
literature and modern writers.
astronomer and natural philosopher, known for formulating and verifying
the three laws of planetary motion. These laws are now known as Kepler's
laws. He discovered that the earth and planets travel about the sun in
elliptical orbits, thus transforming the old description of the heavens.
imperial mathematician and court astronomer to Rudolf II, Holy Roman
His greatest works are
Tabulae Rudolphinae and Admonitio and Astronomos.
religious philosopher and critic of Rationalism. Regarded as the founder
of Existential Philosophy.
was at first confined to Scandinavia and to German-speaking Europe, where
his work had a strong impact on Protestant theology and on Austrian
novelist Franz Kafka. As existentialism developed into a European
movement, Kierkegaard's work was widely translated, and he was recognized
as one of the important figures of modern culture. Wrote Either Or,
Stages of Life's
Way, Fear and Trembling, Works of Love
LEIBNIZ, GOTTFRIED WILHELM (1646-1716)
German philosopher, mathematician. Important as a
metaphysician, a logician and for inventing the differential and integral
calculus. In metaphysics he conceived a system in which substance consists
of atoms which form a pre-established perfect harmony with God as Creator.
Among his works are his New Essays, On Human Understanding, The
Theodicee and Monadologie.
LEOPARDI, GIACOMO (1798-1837)
Considered by some to be one of Italy's
greatest poets. By age twenty, had written several outstanding odes,
including On a monument to Dante. Leopardi first attracted public
notice with his patriotic ode All'Italia (To Italy). Today he is
known as the greatest lyric poet of 19th-century Italy. Operette Morali
is his outstanding prose work. He is best known for his lyrical odes.
LISZT, FRANZ (1811-1886)
Hungarian virtuoso and composer. Aside from
his achievements as pianist and conductor, Liszt taught more than 400
pupils, turned out some 350 compositions, and wrote or collaborated on 8
volumes of prose, not counting his correspondence. Among his best works
are twelve symphonic poems, two piano concertos and several sacred choral
works. He influenced the music of his times and anticipated many
LOCKE, JOHN (1632-1704)
English philosopher. One of the first outstanding
liberals and empiricists in British thought. His main ideas are expounded
in his Essays Concerning Human Understanding. He advanced ideas in
education and the sovereignty of the people. Some of his other major works
are Two treatises on Government and The
Reasonableness of Christianity.
century poet. During his lifetime, was considered to be one of the most
popular American poets. Longfellow's
contemporaries praised his poetry for its clarity and simplicity.
Recognition as a poet came with his Voices in the Night, followed by
Ballads and Other Poems. He is one of the most loved American
LOWELL, JAMES RUSSELL
essayist, editor, diplomat, and critic best known for his poetry. Opposed
the Mexican War and slavery. His works include A Fable for Critics, The
Vision of Sir Launfal, Biglow Papers and My Study Windows. His
volumes of verse include Under the Willows, The Cathedral,
Three Memorial Poems, and Hearts ease and Rue and Political
Austrian-Jewish composer and
conductor, whose works contributed greatly to the post-romantic development
of the symphony. He was noted for his 10 symphonies and various songs for
orchestra. Also composed songs for voice and piano and left an unfinished
novelist. Wrote several tragedies and some poetry. His most famous work is
the greatly loved, The Betrothed, which made him the leading Italian
Romanticist. The Betrothed is ranked among the masterpieces of world
literature. Also wrote Sacred Hymns, Adelchi and Il Conte Di
Carmagnola. Was revered by men of his time, and was made senator in
philosopher, and the modern interpreter of St. Thomas Aquinas. Influenced by
the French philosopher, Bergson. He also devoted much of
his time to a philosophy of the arts. Among his major
works are Art and Scolastique, The Degrees of Knowledge, Men and
the State and Moral Philosophy.
and representative of “Verismo” in operatic music. Studied at the Milan
Conservatory, conducted for a travelling opera company and taught piano. His
first opera, Cavalleria Rusticana, won a major musical competition
and became world famous. His other successful operas are
Fritz, and Iris.
He often conducted his own works.
sculptor, painter and architect who was one of the great titans of the
Italian Renaissance. In sculpture, architecture, painting and poetry he had
a great influence on his contemporaries and Western art in general. Created
some of the world's greatest
masterpieces. He painted the Sistine Chapel ceiling and The Last
Judgement. Sculpted the great David, The Moses and The Pieta.
Also composed many remarkable sonnets.
novelist, short story writer and poet. Best known for his novels of the sea.
Wrote the masterpiece Moby Dick. Also wrote Typee: A Peep at
Polynesian Life, Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas and
Mardi: And a Voyage Thither. These and other novels
contributed to making him the most celebrated American writer.
MILL, JOHN STUART
philosopher, economist, political scientist. His major publications are A
System of Logic and Principles of Political Economy. Also wrote
Three Essays on Religion and On Liberty. Made important
contributions to inductive logic. Did much reform work, helped the poor,
and advocated universal suffrage and franchise.
English poet who
had a powerful influence on succeeding poets. Dedicated to the defence of
civil and religious liberty. Authored pastoral poems and political works.
His greatest work is Paradise Lost, considered to be one of the world's
greatest masterpieces. Twelve books long, it describes
Satan's revolt against God
and the fall of man. Also wrote the sequel, Paradise Regained, and
high caliber sonnets in Petrarchan form in both Italian and English.
MIRANDOLA, PICO DELLA
Renaissance scholar and humanist philosopher. Belonged to the group of
Florentine humanists and was noted for great learning. Wrote an eloquent
essay on human dignity. He also wrote works on philological, mystical and
other subjects. In 1489 Pico completed his Heptaplus, a
mystical account of the creation of the universe. His library was one of the
largest and comprehensive of his times. Gave away all his possessions and
became a wandering preacher.
composer. Began playing the clavier by three and composing by five. Toured
Europe as a pianist at six. By age eight his first symphonies where
published. Wrote musical masterpieces throughout his life. His most famous
works are his operas The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, Cosi` Fan
Tutte, and The Magic Flute. Also wrote the Jupiter and
Coronation symphonies. Was a master in every
field of music.
mathematician, physicist and philosopher. One of the leading pioneers of
science. Had a revolutionary influence on man's
view of the physical world. He enunciated his universal laws of gravitation
and motion. Made important contributions to the Corpuscular Theory of Light,
the construction of the telescope and other works in optics. Discovered
Calculus at the same time as Leibnitz. His chief works are the Principia
mathematician, physicist, religious philosopher and writer who was the
founder of the modern theory of probabilities. Influenced other thinkers
such as Rousseau, Bergson, and the existentialists. His major works are
Les Provinciales and Pensee. Pascal is considered one of the
great minds in Western intellectual history
World renowned French chemist and
biologist who founded the science of microbiology, proved the germ theory of
disease, invented the process of pasteurisation and developed vaccines for
several diseases, including rabies.
science. His major works are
Oeuvres Completes and Correspondence.
By the time of his death , Pasteur had become a national
leader and advocate of religious freedom, who founded Pennsylvania. Was
jailed in the Tower of London for having published the religious tract
The Sandy foundation Shaken. During his imprisonment he wrote his most
famous book, No Cross, No Crown. Later, in Newgate Prison, he wrote
The Great Case of the Liberty of Conscience in defence of religious
poet and humanist whose poems addressed to Laura, an idealized beloved,
contributed to lyric poetry in the Renaissance. Regarded as the greatest
scholar of his age. His humanist ideas were a major contributor to the
development of the Renaissance. His major works
are De Vita Solitaria, De Otio Religioso, Rime and
English Poet and
satirist of the English Augustan period who modelled himself after great
poets of classical antiquity. Was the foremost poet of his age. He is best
known for his poems. Some of his greatest literary works are, An Essay on
Criticism, The Rape of the Lock, The Dunciad and An Essay on Man.
His Essay on Man is believed to be a classic of English neo-classic
composer. Wrote several very successful operas, which are often played in
opera houses around the world. His most loved operas are Manon Lescaut,
La Boheme, Tosca, Madame Butterfly, The Girl of the Golden West and
Turandot.With Verdi and Rossini, he is considered to be one of Italy’s
greatest operatic composers.
England’s greatest native composer who wrote
virtually all kind of music known during the restoration. Composed much
official and church music. His greatest accomplishments lay in theatre
music. His masterpiece is Dido and Aeneas. He also composed five
operas, incidental music to forty-two plays, sonatas and about one hundred
greatest poet. He was the founder of modern Russian literature. Wrote
exceptional epic and lyric poems, plays, novels, and short stories. Exerted
a profound impact on Russian operatic composers who based several of their
operas on his works. Some of his major works are The Queen of Spades,
Eugene Onegin and The
scholar, physician and humanist. Mostly known for authoring the comic and
satirical masterpieces Pantagruel and Gargantua. His work
emphasised individual liberty and excitement for knowledge and life. He is
an energetic representative of Renaissance humanism. Had a great influence
on Voltaire, Balzac, Swift and Kingsley.
Considered to be one of the greatest painters of the Impressionist period.
He is noted for his brilliant colours and the charm of his human subjects.
In the mid 1880's broke away from the movement to a more formal style. Some
of his greatest works are, Le Bal au moulin de la Galette, Madame
Charpentier and her Children, Woman with Fan, and The Swing.
His art is greatly appreciated worldwide and is found in all great museums.
RILKE, RAINER MARIA
poet and novelist who wrote mystical, symbolic, impressionistic and lyrical
poetry. His works include The Book of Hours, and The Tale of the
Love and Death of Cornet Cristopher Rilke. Also wrote his famous
Eulogies and Sonnets to Orpheus. He is regarded as one of the most
important and influential modern poets.
and writer who excelled in poems of fantasy, verse for children and
religious poetry, homilies and discourses. Considered to be one of the world's
greatest female poets. Her major works are Goblin Market and Other Poems,
and Verses and New Poems. Also wrote, When I’m Dead my Dearest, Uphill,
and A Birthday.
RUBENS, PETER PAUL
painter Considered to be the greatest and most influential of the Flemish
masters, and one of the most important artists of the 17th
century. Known for his vibrant vigorous style and his luminous colours.
Several of his paintings are in the Louvre museum in Paris and in other
major museums worldwide. Some of his greatest works are The Raising of
the Cross, The Descent From the Cross and The Assumption of the
Virgin. Influenced other great artists such as Watteau and Delacroix .
philosopher, writer and political theorist musician, botanist and one of the
most capable writers of the Age of Enlightenment. He inspired the romantic
generation and offered ideas on how to minimise social inequality. Was
propelled to fame by the essay
Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts
written for the Academie De Dijon. Other major works are The New Eloise
and The Social Contract.
dramatist, and actor often called the English national poet and considered
by many to be the greatest dramatist of all times. Some of his greatest
comedies are Comedy of Errors, Two Gentlemen of Verona and
The Taming of the Shrew. Also wrote great tragedies such as ,
Othello, Romeo and Juliet, Macbeth, Hamlet and King Lear. Because of
his great plays and his exquisite sonnets, he is now recognized as one of
the world’s greatest literary giants.
dramatist, literary critic and winner of the Nobel Prize for literature in
1925. Considered to be one of the most important British dramatists since
Shakespeare. Some of his works are The Apple Cart, Caesar and Cleopatra
and St. Joan for which he received the Nobel Prize for literature
in 1925. Was a significant influence on his and later generations.
and nationalistic composer. Gained his first success with Kullervo.
Wrote eight symphonies and the popular tone poem, Finlandia. Also
composed En Saga, The Swan at Tuonela, and Valse Triste
as well as incidental music for plays, violin and piano solos and songs.
ALEXANDER (1918- )
novelist and historian. Imprisoned for criticising the Soviet regime. Exiled
to Central Russia he taught Mathematics and wrote One Day in the Life of
Ivan Denisovich. Later he wrote his major works, The Gulag
Archipelago, The Oak and the Calf and The Mortal Danger.
Considered to be the most important Russian literary artist of the
second half of the twentieth century. Was awarded the Nobel Prize for
literature in 1970.
rationalist philosopher and religious thinker of Portuguese-Jewish
descent. Believed to be one of the world's
greatest philosophers. His ideas appear in Ethica and Tractatus
Teologico-Politicus. His Ethica Ordine Geometrico Demonstrata
captures best the essence of his thought. Influenced Leibnitz and German
Russian-American composer and one of the most influential musical composers
of the 20th century. Had a significant influence on contemporary
music. Composed the masterpiece The Firebird Ballet and the
revolutionary Le Sacre Du Printemps. Also created
neo-classical piano and violin concertos and the Mozartian opera The Rake's
satirist and political. Considered one of the greatest Masters of English
prose and one of the most effective satirist of his times. Known mostly for
his brilliant satire, Gulliver's
Travels, which became a
classic story for children. Some of his other major works are A Modest
Proposal and Tale of the Tub.
Considered the most influential poet of the Italian Renaissance. His work
includes the beautiful pastoral play Aminta,Torrismondo, the epic
poem Rinaldo and his immortal epic Jerusalem Delivered. He was
summoned to Rome to be crowned poet laureate, but died before the ceremony
could take place.
PETER ILICH (1840-1893)
composer. Considered to be a master melodist. He composed several
outstanding works among which are the Synphonie Pathetique and the
operas Eugene Onegin, and Pique Dance, the ballets Swan
Lake and Sleeping Beauty and his world renowned Nutcracker
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN,
French, Roman Catholic priest,
geologist philosopher-theologian and palaeontologist, known for his
revolutionary views on humanity and the universe. Blended science with
Christianity. His fundamental work is The Phenomenon of Man. Also
wrote The Appearance of Man.
TENNYSON, ALFRED (1809-1892)
often regarded as the chief representative of the Victorian age in poetry.
His first work , Poems Chiefly Lyrical, appeared while he was still a
student at Cambridge. Some of his works are The Princess, In Memoriam,
The Charge of the Light Brigade and Ballads and Other Poems. Also
wrote several plays . He was Raised to peerage in
essayist and naturalist. Lover of the simple life. Lived in a cabin at
Walden Pond for two years and, as a result, wrote the classic Walden, or
Life in the Woods. Was a strong anti-slavery man and an energetic
Transcendentalist. His fame grew after his death. Also wrote The Maine
Woods, Excursions and Cape Cod.
novelist and philosopher. Wrote two of the greatest of all novels: War
and Peace and Anna Karenina. His conversion to religion is
described in his Confessions. By the time of his death he had given
away all of his possessions to the poor and needy.
He was devoted to social reform. Also wrote Resurrection and
The Power of darkness
and founder of the Hermetic Movement. Wrote several works including
Allegria Di Naufragi, Sentimento Del Tempo and Il Dolore, in
which he expressed his grief over Nazi atrocities. Ranks with Montale as one
of the foremost European poets of the 20th century. With him begins a period
of great revival in Italian poetry.
philosopher of cultural history and law who is recognized today as the
forerunner of cultural anthropology and ethnology. In his work Scienza
Nuova, he tried to bring about a convergence between history and the
more systematic social sciences so as to create a single science of
humanity. His other major works are
On the Method of the Studies of our Times
and Bibliotheque. Recognized as one
of the most important figures in European intellectual history.
author, playwright, philosopher and one of the greatest authors of the
eighteenth century. A crusader against tyranny and bigotry. Noted for his
satire and critical ability. His best known plays are Zaire,
Merope and Mohamet. His satirical stories, Candide, and
Zadig and his long epic La Henriade are also famous.
French mystic social philosopher
whose works had particular influence on French and English social thought.
Wrote Cahiers Du Sud, La Pesanteur et La Grace, Waiting for God, The Need
for Roots and Fully Dedicated to God and
English philosopher who was one of the most influential figures in British
philosophy during the second quarter of the twentieth century. Produced two
original and influential systems of philosophical thought: his Logical
Theories and his Philosophy of Language. Wrote the Tractatus
Logico-Philosophicus and Philosophical
Romantic poet and poet laureate of England. His Lyrical Ballads,
written with Samuel Taylor Coleridge, helped launch the English Romantic
movement. Also wrote The Prelude, very fine lyrics and The
Excursion. His theories and style contributed to a new tradition in
Drimmer, H. The
New University One Volume Encyclopaedia. New York: New University
Encyclopaedia Division, 1967.
Britannica, . Toronto:
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc., 1989.