Fear Mongering
Ex- Atheists
R. Dawkins
B. Russell
D. Hume 
Atheists and Divorce
The Greatest Minds and God
Nobelists and God
Is God Cruel?
Is Christianity Evil?
Bible Contradictions?
About God and Jesus Christ
Great Theistic Works
God's Existence Sites
C. Hitchens
S. Harris
P. Pullman
Open Letter to Atheist/Agnostic-Jews
Open Letter to Christians Who Embraced Atheism
Free Literature
The Author


"We Believe in God" -- The Greatest Minds Believed,204,203,200_.jpg


 Is God Cruel?

The Dawkins Delusion?

There Is a God

Mere Christianity  C.S. Lewis

Darwin on Trial

The Edge of Evolution

Intelligent Design

The Fingerprint of God

The Creator and the Cosmos

Creation As Science

The Cell's Design

Understanding Intelligent Design

Icons of Evolution

The Language of God

What's So Great About Christianity






                                        NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS AND GOD        

     This section was kindly contributed by researcher and author Tihomir Dimitrov. It is only a fraction of his e-book,  Fifty Nobel Laureates Who Believe in God, presently published on his site ( and which we hope will soon be published in print in North America. We are very grateful to him for his very inspiring and illuminating contribution.


          The book, 50 NOBEL LAUREATES AND OTHER GREAT SCIENTISTS WHO BELIEVE IN GOD, comprises religious quotations from the most influential scientists and writers in the world.
           In the course of my 11-year research I have studied hundreds of books, articles and letters - primarily those found in the archives of the National Library of Bulgaria (Sofia), Biblioteca Comunale di Milano and the Austrian National Library (Vienna). I have also corresponded with many contemporary Nobel Prize-winning scientists who have shared their personal beliefs about God.
          I believe that this book will inspire believers, will give hope to seekers and that it will challenge those who think that religion and contemporary science are in insurmountable conflict.
Tihomir Dimitrov,



1. ALBERT EINSTEIN, Nobel Laureate in Physics:

1. ¨ “I want to know how God created this world. I am not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that element. I want to know His thoughts, the rest are details.” (Einstein, as cited in Clark 1973, 33).

2. ¨ “The most beautiful and most profound emotion we can experience is the sensation of the mystical. It is the sower of all true science. He to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer stand rapt in awe, is as good as dead. That deeply emotional conviction of the presence of a superior Reasoning Power, which is revealed in the incomprehensible Universe, forms my idea of God.” (Einstein, as cited in Libby Anfinsen 1995).


Clark, Ronald W. 1985. The Life of Ernst Chain: Penicillin and Beyond. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Anfinsen, Libby. 1995. Memorial speech for Christian Anfinsen at Memorial Garden Dedication, Weizmann Institute. November 16. (The Christian Anfinsen Papers. Profiles in Science.) U.S. National Library of Medicine.

PS. A letter written by Einstein to Gutkind was made public recently which appears to indicate that Einstein became an atheist toward the end of his life. The author of this web site contends that such conclusion is not necessarily justified.

Click here for rationale.


2.  MAX PLANCK, Nobel Laureate in Physics

1. ¨ In his famous lecture Religion and Science (May 1937) Planck wrote: “Both religion and science need for their activities the belief in God, and moreover God stands for the former in the beginning, and for the latter at the end of the whole thinking. For the former, God represents the basis, for the latter - the crown of any reasoning concerning the world-view.” (Max Planck, Religion und Naturwissenschaft, Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag, 1958, 27).

2. ¨ “Religion represents a bond of man to God. It consists in reverent awe before a supernatural Might [Macht], to which human life is subordinated and which has in its power our welfare and misery. To remain in permanent contact with this Might and keep it all the time inclined to oneself, is the unending effort and the highest goal of the believing man. Because only in such a way can one feel himself safe before expected and unexpected dangers, which threaten one in his life, and can take part in the highest happiness - inner psychical peace - which can be attained only by means of strong bond to God and unconditional trust to His omnipotence and willingness to help.” (Max Planck 1958, 9).


Planck, Max. 1958. Religion und Naturwissenschaft. Leipzig: Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag. XIV Auflage. (Trans. Adam Roman).


3. WERNER HEISENBERG, Nobel Laureate in Physics:

1. ¨ Heisenberg wrote: “The first gulp from the glass of natural sciences will turn you into an atheist, but at the bottom of the glass God is waiting for you.” [“Der erste Trunk aus dem Becher der Naturwissenschaft macht atheistisch, aber auf dem Grund des Bechers wartet Gott.”] (Heisenberg, as cited in Hildebrand 1988, 10).  

2. ¨ In his autobiographical article in the journal Truth, Henry Margenau (Professor Emeritus of Physics and Natural Philosophy at Yale University) pointed out: “I have said nothing about the years between 1936 and 1950. There were, however, a few experiences I cannot forget. One was my first meeting with Heisenberg, who came to America soon after the end of the Second World War. …Our conversation was intimate and he impressed me by his deep religious conviction. He was a true Christian in every sense of that word.” (Margenau 1985, Vol. 1).


Hildebrand, Ulrich. 1988. “Das Universum - Hinweis auf Gott?”, in Ethos (die Zeitschrift für die ganze Familie), No. 10, Oktober. Berneck, Schweiz: Schwengeler Verlag AG. Reprinted by permission of the publisher, Schwengeler Verlag AG.

Margenau, Henry. 1985. “Why I Am a Christian”, in Truth (An International, Inter-disciplinary Journal of Christian Thought), Vol. 1. Truth Inc., in cooperation with the Institute for Research in Christianity and Contemporary Thought, the International Christian Graduate University, Dallas Baptist University and the International Institute for Mankind. USA.


4. ERWIN SCHRÖDINGER, Nobel Laureate in Physics:

1. ¨ In his famous book Nature and the Greeks (Cambridge University Press, 1954) Prof. Schrödinger writes:

“I am very astonished that the scientific picture of the real world around me is very deficient. It gives a lot of factual information, puts all our experience in a magnificently consistent order, but it is ghastly silent about all and sundry that is really near to our heart, that really matters to us. It cannot tell us a word about red and blue, bitter and sweet, physical pain and physical delight; it knows nothing of beautiful and ugly, good or bad, God and eternity. Science sometimes pretends to answer questions in these domains, but the answers are very often so silly that we are not inclined to take them seriously.” (Schrödinger 1954, 93).  

2. ¨ Schrödinger maintains that the human technical inventions have caused a deterioration in Nature: “The grave error in a technically directed cultural drive is that it sees its highest goal in the possibility of achieving an alteration of Nature. It hopes to set itself in the place of God, so that it may force upon the divine will some petty conventions of its dust-born mind.” (Schrödinger, as cited in Moore 1990, 349).  

3. ¨ In the presentation of a scientific problem, the other player is the good Lord. He has not only set the problem but also has devised the rules of the game - but they are not completely known, half of them are left for you to discover or to deduce. …The uncertainty is how many of the rules God himself has permanently ordained, and how many apparently are caused by your own mental inertia, while the solution generally becomes possible only through freedom from its limitations. This is perhaps the most exciting thing in the game.” (Schrödinger, as cited in Moore 1990, 348).


Schrödinger, Erwin. 1954. Nature and the Greeks. Cambridge University Press.

Moore, Walter John. 1990. Schrödinger: Life and Thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


5.  ROBERT MILLIKAN, Nobel Laureate in Physics: 

1. ¨ In an interview, entitled “A Scientist’s God” (Collier’s; October 24, 1925) Millikan stated:

“It pains me as much as it did Kelvin ‘to hear crudely atheistic views expressed by men who have never known the deeper side of existence.’ Let me, then, henceforth use the word God to describe that which is behind the mystery of existence and that which gives meaning to it. I think you will not misunderstand me, then, when I say that I have never known a thinking man who did not believe in God.” (Millikan 1925).

“To me it is unthinkable that a real atheist could be a scientist.” (Millikan, as cited in Grounds 1945, 22).


Millikan, Robert A. 1925. “A Scientist’s God,” in Collier’s, The National Weekly. October 24. Collier’s Publishing Company.  

Grounds, Vernon C. 1945. The Reason for Our Hope. Chicago: Moody Press.


6.  CHARLES TOWNES, Nobel Laureate in Physics.

1. ¨ On May 24, 2002, Charles Townes wrote a letter to the compiler T. Dimitrov. To the inquiry, “What do you think about the existence of God?” Prof. Townes gave the following answer: “I strongly believe in the existence of God, based on intuition, observations, logic, and also scientific knowledge.” (Townes 2002a).


Townes, Charles H. 2002a. A letter to the compiler T. Dimitrov. May 24. Reprinted by permission of Charles H. Townes. 


7.  ARTHUR SCHAWLOW, Nobel Laureate in Physics:

1. ¨ Arthur Schawlow described the relationship between religion and science in the following way:

“Religion is founded on faith. It seems to me that when confronted with the marvels of life and the universe, one must ask why and not just how. The only possible answers are religious. For me that means Protestant Christianity, to which I was introduced as a child and which has withstood the tests of a lifetime."

2. ¨ “I find a need for God in the universe and in my own life.” (Schawlow, as cited in Margenau and Varghese, 1997, 107; and in Clausen 1995, 10).


Margenau, Henry, and Roy A. Varghese, eds. 1997. Cosmos, Bios, Theos: Scientists Reflect on Science, God, and the Origins of the Universe, Life, and Homo sapiens. 4th ed. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company.


8. WILLIAM PHILLIPS, Nobel Laureate in Physics.

1. ¨ In his lecture Ordinary Faith, Ordinary Science, delivered at the conference “Science and the Spiritual Quest” (20 April 2002, Paris), Dr. William Phillips said: “Many scientists are also people with quite conventional religious faith. I, a physicist, am one example. I believe in God as both creator and friend. That is, I believe that God is personal and interacts with us.” (Phillips 2002a).

2. ¨ In his letter to the compiler T. Dimitrov (19 May 2002) William Phillips replied to several questions. To the inquiry, “What do you think about the existence of God?” Dr. Phillips gave the following answer:

“I believe in God. In fact, I believe in a personal God who acts in and interacts with the creation. I believe that the observations about the orderliness of the physical universe, and the apparently exceptional fine-tuning of the conditions of the universe for the development of life suggest that an intelligent Creator is responsible. …I believe in God because of a personal faith, a faith that is consistent with what I know about science.” (Phillips 2002b).


 Phillips, William D. 2002a. Ordinary Faith, Ordinary Science. А public lecture at the conference “Science and the Spiritual Quest II” (April 20; IUP). UNESCO, Salle 1, Paris. Reprinted by permission of William D. Phillips.

Phillips, William D. 2002b. A letter to the compiler T. Dimitrov. May 19. Reprinted by permission of William D. Phillips.


9. SIR WILLIAM H. BRAGG, Nobel Laureate in Physics:

1. ¨ Prof. Bragg wrote: “Christ’s rule and example showed God as our Father and us as His children, a society in which love governs all. Then if we seek a rule of conduct we should think of what we should like children to be like and what we should wish them to do. We like them to be hardworking, eager, cheerful, sympathetic. We like them to enjoy themselves thoroughly. We must be sad and in pain sometimes, but let us be happy as much and whenever we can, and whilst we are well and happy let us help all who are not. The more we strive to enjoy ourselves the more happiness we shall be able to communicate to others. For we trust that this life is a preparation: not a final probation.” (Bragg, as cited in Caroe 1979, 164).  

2. ¨ “What should be the principles of a nation? …Christ stated them in the form of two Commandments: ‘Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart’, and ‘Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself.’ ” (Bragg, as cited in Caroe 1979, 111).


Caroe, Gwendolen M. 1979. William Henry Bragg (1862 - 1942): Man and Scientist. Cambridge University Press.  

Caroe, Gwendolen M. 1979. William Henry Bragg (1862 - 1942): Man and Scientist. Cambridge University Press.


10.  GUGLIELMO MARCONI, Nobel Laureate in Physics:

1. ¨ "Guglielmo Marconi wrote: “The more I work with the powers of Nature, the more I feel God’s benevolence to man; the closer I am to the great truth that everything is dependent on the Eternal Creator and Sustainer [Creatore e Reggitore Eterno]; the more I feel that the so-called ‘science’ I am occupied with is nothing but an expression of the Supreme Will, which aims at bringing people closer to each other in order to help them better understand and improve themselves.” (Marconi, as cited in Maria Cristina Marconi 1995, 244).

2. ¨ In his letter to his wife Maria Cristina (Savoy Hotel, London, 17 March 1927) Marconi wrote:

“I know how much you love and cherish the beautiful Nature - the expression of God’s Will - where one can find the ideal eternal values: the Truth, the Beauty and the Good (and you possess the three of them). The harmonious unity of causes and laws forms the Truth; the harmonious unity of lines, colors, sounds, and ideas forms the Beauty; while the harmony of emotions and the will forms the Good, which in being the ultimate expression of the Eternal and Supreme Creator brings man to completion and drives us to seek absolute perfection.” (Marconi, as cited in Maria Cristina Marconi 1995, 260).


Marconi, Maria Cristina. 1995. Mio Marito Guglielmo. R.C.S. Libri e Grandi Opere S.p.A.  Milano: Rizzoli. (Trans. Raina Castoldi.


11.  ARTHUR COMPTON, Nobel Laureate in Physics:

1. ¨ In his article “Science and the Supernatural” (1946) Compton said:

“From earliest childhood I have learned to see in Jesus the supreme example of one who loves his neighbors and expresses that love in actions that count, who knows that people can find their souls by losing themselves in something of great value, who will die rather than deny the truth in favor of the popular view held by his most respected contemporaries. That Jesus’ spirit lives so vitally in men today makes me hope that by following in his footsteps in my small way I also may live forever.” (Compton, as cited in Johnston 1967, 372).  

3. ¨ Commenting on the first verse of the Bible in Chicago Daily News (12 April 1936), Arthur Compton stated his religious views: “For myself, faith begins with the realization that a supreme intelligence brought the universe into being and created man. It is not difficult for me to have this faith, for it is incontrovertible that where there is a plan there is intelligence. An orderly, unfolding universe testifies to the truth of the most majestic statement ever uttered - ‘In the beginning God.’ [Genesis 1, 1].” (Compton 1936).


Johnston, Marjorie, ed. 1967. The Cosmos of Arthur Holly Compton. Introduction by Vannevar Bush. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc.

Compton, Arthur H. 1936. Quoted in Chicago Daily News (Magazine Section, Issue of April 12). Chicago, USA.


12. ARNO PENZIAS, Nobel Laureate in Physics.

1. ¨ In connection with the “Big Bang” theory and the issue of the origin of our highly ordered universe, Dr. Penzias stated to the New York Times on March 12, 1978:

“The best data we have are exactly what I would have predicted, had I had nothing to go on but the five books of Moses, the Psalms, the Bible as a whole.” (Penzias, as cited in Bergman 1994, 183; see also Brian 1995, 163).

Arno Penzias’ research into astrophysics has caused him to see “evidence of a plan of divine creation” (Penzias, as cited in Bergman 1994, 183).  


 Bergman, Jerry. 1994. “Arno A. Penzias: Astrophysicist, Nobel Laureate,” in Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 46.3: 183-187, (9/1994). The Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation.


13. ALEXIS CARREL, Nobel Laureate in  Medicine and Physiology:

1. ¨ In Reflections on Life, Prof. Carrel expressed his attitude towards Christianity thus:

“We are loved by an immaterial and all-powerful Being. This Being is accessible to our prayers. We must love Him above all creatures. And we ourselves must also love one another.

4. ¨ “Christianity offers men the very highest of moralities. …It presents to them a God who can be adored because He is within our reach and Whom we ought to love.” (Carrel 1952, Chap. 9, Part 4).  “I want to be like smoke in the wind at God’s disposal.” (Carrel, as cited in Newton 1989).  


Carrel, Alexis. 1952. Reflections on Life. London: Hamish Hamilton.

Newton, James D. 1989. Uncommon Friends: Life with Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, Harvey Firestone, Alexis Carrel, and Charles Lindbergh. Harvest Books.


14. SIR JOHN ECCLES, Nobel Laureate in  Medicine and Physiology:

1. ¨ In his article “Modern Biology and the Turn to Belief in God” that he wrote for the book, The Intellectuals Speak Out About God: A Handbook for the Christian Student in a Secular Society (1984), John Eccles came to the following conclusion:

“We come to exist through a divine act. That divine guidance is a theme throughout our life; at our death the brain goes, but that divine guidance and love continues. Each of us is a unique, conscious being, a divine creation. It is the religious view. It is the only view consistent with all the evidence.” (Eccles 1984a, 50).

2. ¨ In an interview published in the scientific anthology, The Voice of Genius (1995), Prof. Eccles stated: “There is a Divine Providence over and above the materialistic happenings of biological evolution.” (Eccles, as cited in Brian 1995, 371).


 Eccles, John C. 1984a. “Modern Biology and the Turn to Belief in God,” in The Intellectuals Speak Out about God: A Handbook for the Christian Student in a Secular Society, ed. Roy A. Varghese. (Preface by the former United States President Ronald Reagan). Chicago, IL: Regnery Gateway.

Brian, Denis, ed. 1995. The Voice of Genius. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus Publishing.


15. JOSEPH MURRAY, Nobel Laureate in  Medicine and Physiology:

1. ¨ In an interview for the National Catholic Register (December 1-7, 1996), Prof. Joseph Murray asserts that there is no conflict between religion and science:

“Is the Church inimical to science? Growing up as a Catholic and a scientist - I don’t see it.

One truth is revealed truth, the other is scientific truth. If you really believe that creation is good, there can be no harm in studying science. The more we learn about creation - the way it emerged - it just adds to the glory of God. Personally, I’ve never seen a conflict.” (Murray, as cited in Meyer 1996).

2. ¨ “We’re just working with the tools God gave us. ...There’s no reason that science and religion have to operate in an adversarial relationship. Both come from the same source, the only source of truth - the Creator.” (Murray, as cited in Meyer 1996).


Meyer, Gabriel. 1996. “Pontifical Science Academy Banks on Stellar Cast.” National Catholic Register (a weekly Catholic newspaper, founded in 1927). December 1-7. Circle Media, Inc., North Haven, CT.


16. SIR ERNST CHAIN, Nobel Laureate in Medicine and Physiology:

1. ¨ Concerning the Darwinian theory of evolution Professor Ernst Chain (who is a theistic evolutionist) states:

“I would rather believe in fairies than in such wild speculation. …I have said for years that speculations about the origin of life lead to no useful purpose as even the simplest living system is far too complex to be understood in terms of the extremely primitive chemistry scientists have used in their attempts to explain the unexplainable that happened billions of years ago. God cannot be explained away by such naïve thoughts.” (Chain, as cited in Ronald W. Clark, The Life of Ernst Chain: Penicillin and Beyond, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1985, pp. 147-148).

2. ¨ In his public lecture “Social Responsibility and the Scientist in Modern Western Society” (University of London, February 1970) Sir Ernst Chain declared:

“As far as my own actions are concerned, I am trying to be guided by the laws, ethics and traditions of Judaism as formulated in the Old Testament, which are, of course, also the basis of Christianity. I am convinced, and have been for many years, that it is impossible to construct a sort of absolute and generally applicable code of ethical behaviour on the basis of scientific knowledge alone, if only for the reason that our knowledge about the basic problems of life is far too fragmentary and limited, and will always remain so.


 Clark, Ronald W. 1985. The Life of Ernst Chain: Penicillin and Beyond. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Chain, E. “Social Responsibility and the Scientist in Modern Western Society,” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Spring 1971, Vol. 14, No. 3, p. 366).


17. GEORGE WALD, Nobel Laureate in Medicine and Physiology: 


1. ¨ In 1954 Prof. George Wald (who was still an atheist at that time) wrote in Scientific American:

2. ¨ “The reasonable view was to believe in spontaneous generation; the only alternative, to believe in a single, primary act of supernatural creation. There is no third position. …Most modern biologists, having reviewed with satisfaction the downfall of the spontaneous generation hypothesis, yet unwilling to accept the alternative belief in special creation, are left with nothing.” (Wald 1954, “The Origin of Life,” Scientific American, 191 [2]: 45-46).



3. ¨ Nevertheless, George Wald underwent an astonishing change of mind during the early 1980s, and he came very close to religious mentality.

In 1984 Prof. Wald wrote: “In my life as scientist I have come upon two major problems which, though rooted in science, though they would occur in this form only to a scientist, project beyond science, and are I think ultimately insoluble as science. That is hardly to be wondered at, since one involves consciousness and the other, cosmology.

1) The consciousness problem was hardly avoidable by one who has spent most of his life studying mechanisms of vision. We have learned a lot, we hope to learn much more; but none of it touches or even points, however tentatively, in the direction of what it means to see. Our observations in human eyes and nervous systems and in those of frogs are basically much alike. I know that I see; but does a frog see? It reacts to light; so do cameras, garage doors, any number of photoelectric devices. But does it see? Is it aware that it is reacting? There is nothing I can do as a scientist to answer that question, no way that I can identify either the presence or absence of consciousness. I believe consciousness to be a permanent condition that involves all sensation and perception. Consciousness seems to me to be wholly impervious to science.

2) The second problem involves the special properties of our universe. Life seems increasingly to be part of the order of nature. We have good reason to believe that we find ourselves in a universe permeated with life, in which life arises inevitably, given enough time, wherever the conditions exist that make it possible. Yet were any one of a number of the physical properties of our universe otherwise - some of them basic, others seemingly trivial, almost accidental - that life, which seems now to be so prevalent, would become impossible, here or anywhere. It takes no great imagination to conceive of other possible universes, each stable and workable in itself, yet lifeless. How is it that, with so many other apparent options, we are in a universe that possesses just that peculiar nexus of properties that breeds life?

It has occurred to me lately - I must confess with some shock at first to my scientific sensibilities - that both questions might be brought into some degree of congruence. This is with the assumption that Mind, rather than emerging as a late outgrowth in the evolution of life, has existed always as the matrix, the source and condition of physical reality - that the stuff of which physical reality is composed is mind-stuff. It is Mind that has composed a physical universe that breeds life, and so eventually evolves creatures that know and create.”


Wald, George. 1954. “The Origin of Life,” Scientific American, 191 [2]: 44-53, August.

George Wald, 1984, “Life and Mind in the Universe”, International Journal of Quantum Chemistry: Quantum Biology Symposium 11, 1984: 1-15.


18. SIR DEREK BARTON, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry:

1. ¨ Prof. Barton wrote: “God is Truth. There is no incompatibility between science and religion. Both are seeking the same truth. Science shows that God exists.” (Barton, as cited in Margenau and Varghese 1997, 144).

2. ¨ “The observations and experiments of science are so wonderful that the truth that they establish can surely be accepted as another manifestation of God. God shows himself by allowing man to establish truth.” (Barton, as cited in Margenau and Varghese 1997, 145).


Margenau, Henry, and Roy A. Varghese, eds. 1997. Cosmos, Bios, Theos: Scientists Reflect on Science, God, and the Origins of the Universe, Life, and Homo sapiens. 4th ed. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company.


19. CHRISTIAN ANFINSEN, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry: 

1. ¨ To the question, “Many prominent scientists - including Darwin, Einstein, and Planck - have considered the concept of God very seriously. What are your thoughts on the concept of God and on the existence of God?” Christian Anfinsen replied:

“I think only an idiot can be an atheist. We must admit that there exists an incomprehensible power or force with limitless foresight and knowledge that started the whole universe going in the first place.” (Anfinsen, as cited in Margenau and Varghese, Cosmos, Bios, Theos, 1997, 139).


Margenau, Henry, and Roy A. Varghese, eds. 1997. Cosmos, Bios, Theos: Scientists Reflect on Science, God, and the Origins of the Universe, Life, and Homo sapiens. 4th ed. Chicago and La Salle, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company.


20. WALTER KOHN, Nobel Laureate in Chemistry:

1. ¨ In the interview, entitled “Dr. Walter Kohn: Science, Religion, and the Human Experience” (July 26, 2001), Dr. Kohn stated:

“I am Jewish and have a strong identification with Judaism.

I would say I see myself as religious simultaneously in two ways. One is that I have found that religion, specifically the Jewish religion, has very much enriched my own life and is something that I have conveyed to my children and feel their lives also have been enriched by.

Secondly, I am very much of a scientist, and so I naturally have thought about religion also through the eyes of a scientist. When I do that, I see religion not denominationally, but in a more, let us say, deistic sense. I have been influenced in my thinking by the writings of Einstein who has made remarks to the effect that when he contemplated the world he sensed an underlying Force much greater than any human force. I feel very much the same. There is a sense of awe, a sense of reverence, and a sense of great mystery.” (Kohn 2001a).

2. ¨ On May 23, 2002, Professor Kohn wrote a letter to the compiler T. Dimitrov. To the question, “What do you think should be the relationship between science and religion?” Walter Kohn replied: “Mutual respect. They are complementary important parts of the human experience.” (Kohn 2002).

And to the inquiry, “What do you think about the existence of God?” Walter Kohn gave the following answer: “There are essential parts of the human experience about which science intrinsically has nothing to say. I associate them with an entity which I call God.” (Kohn 2002).


 Kohn, Walter. 2001a. “Dr. Walter Kohn: Science, Religion, and the Human Experience.” An interview in The Santa Barbara Independent. (July 26, 2001). Dr. Kohn was interviewed by John F. Luca. Santa Barbara, CA.

Kohn, Walter. 2002. A letter to the compiler T. Dimitrov. May 23.



21. T. S. ELIOT, Nobel Laureate in Literature.


1 ¨             “Lord, shall we not bring these gifts to Your service?

Shall we not bring to Your service all our powers

For life, for dignity, grace and order,

And intellectual pleasures of the senses?

The Lord who created must wish us to create

And employ our creation again in His service

Which is already His service in creating.”


Caputo, Michael,  God - Seen through the Eyes of the Greatest Minds, 2000, 116).


22. RUDYARD KIPLING, Nobel Laureate in Literature: 

1 ¨             “Father in Heaven who lovest all,

Oh, help Thy children when they call;

That they may build from age to age

An undefiled heritage.”

From “The Children’s Song”, 1906, “Puck of Pook’s Hill”.


Kipling, Rudyard. 1989. Rudyard Kipling, Complete Verse: Definitive Edition. Garden City, New York: Anchor Press/Doubleday & Company, Inc.


23. ALEXANDER SOLZHENITSYN, Nobel Laureate in Literature: 

1. ¨ “How easy it is for me to live with Thee Lord! How easy to believe in Thee! When my thoughts pull back in puzzlement or go soft, when the brightest people see no further than this evening and know not what to do tomorrow, Thou sendest down to me clear confidence that Thou art, and will make sure that not all the ways of the good are closed.” (From Solzhenitsyn’s prayer, as cited in Burg and Feifer 1972, 189; see also


Caputo, Michael,  God - Seen through the Eyes of the Greatest Minds, 2000, 155).


24. FRANÇOIS MAURIAC, Nobel Laureate in Literature: 

“When I was twenty, would I have been able to fight human loneliness: to remain alone, as I dare do today?

I was a victim of all those illusions to which youth is always a prey, …all the qualities which make us want to hurl ourselves into someone else’s arms to soothe the wounds of loneliness, the yearning for a single human presence!

Today, in the evening of my life, I know the final answer. It is Jesus Christ alone who quiets the radical anguish that is in us - an anguish which is so consubstantial with the human condition that it is cruelly manifest from childhood to the grave. The torment of loneliness, the vacillating shadows of those we love as they leave us in the horrible mysteries of death, the secret and permanent thirst we have for the limitless gratification of our ego…

Our hearts remain full of unseen idols until we are stretched on the wood of the Cross with Christ, until we cease trying to nourish ourselves and our desires, and give ourselves completely to the poor, to the needy, to the suffering members of Christ’s body throughout the world…” (Mauriac, Notre Dame, 1964).


Mauriac, François. 1964. Anguish and Joy of the Christian Life. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press. (See also the edition of Dimension Books, Denville, N. J., 1964).


25. HERMANN HESSE, Nobel Laureate in Literature

“The fact that people think they have their life on loan from God and do not want to use it egotistically, but, on the contrary, they want to live it as service and sacrifice to God, this experience and legacy, the greatest one, from my childhood has had an extremely powerful influence on my life.” (Hesse 1972, 59).


Hesse, Hermann. 1972. Mein Glaube. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag. (Trans. V. Daskalova).


26. SIR WINSTON CHURCHILL, Nobel Laureate in Literature: 

1. ¨ In his speech “The 20th century - Its Promise and Its Realization” at the MIT Mid-Century Convocation, Boston (March 31, 1949) Sir Winston Churchill said:

“Here I speak not only to those who enjoy the blessings and consolation of revealed religion but also to those who face the mysteries of human destiny alone. The flame of Christian ethics is still our highest guide. To guard and cherish it is our first interest, both spiritually and materially. The fulfilment of Spiritual duty in our daily life is vital to our survival. Only by bringing it into perfect application can we hope to solve for ourselves the problems of this world and not of this world alone…

United we stand secure. Let us then move forward together in discharge of our mission and our duty, fearing God and nothing else.” (Churchill 1974, Volume VII, p. 7807ff).  

2. ¨ “Above all, we have our faith that the universe is ruled by a Supreme Being and in fulfilment of a sublime moral purpose, according to which all our actions are judged.” (Churchill 1974, Vol. VII, p. 7650).


Churchill, Winston S. 1974. The Complete Speeches of Winston S. Churchill. Edited by Robert Rhodes James. Volume VII (1943-1949) & Volume VIII (1950-1963). New York and London: Chelsea House Publishers.


 27. JEAN-PAUL SARTRE, Nobel Laureate in Literature:


 2. ¨ “…First of all, man exists, turns up, appears on the scene, and, only afterwards, defines himself. If man, as the existentialist conceives him, is indefinable, it is because at first he is nothing. Only afterward will he be something, and he himself will have made what he will be. Thus, there is no human nature, since there is no God to conceive it.” (Sartre 1957, 15-16; see also Sartre 1988, 75).


3. ¨ Nevertheless, Sartre underwent a very surprising and unusual change of mind towards the end of his life; in fact, he came very close to theistic commitment. The magazine National Review (June 11, 1982) reported it thus:

“Throughout his mature career, the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre was a militant atheist. Politically, although he quarreled with Marxist materialism, his rhetoric was often indistinguishable from the most heavy-handed Stalinist boiler-plate.

However, during the philosopher’s last months there were some surprising developments. In 1980, nearing his death, by then blind, decrepit, but still in full possession of his faculties, Sartre came very close to belief in God, perhaps even more than very close.

The story can be told briefly, and perhaps reverently. An ex-Maoist, Pierre Victor, shared much of Sartre’s time toward the end. In the early spring of 1980 the two had a dialogue in the pages of the ultra-gauchiste Nouvel Observateur. It is sufficient to quote a single sentence from what Sartre said then to measure the degree of his acceptance of the grace of God and the creatureliness of man:

‘I do not feel that I am the product of chance, a speck of dust in the universe, but someone who was expected, prepared, prefigured. In short, a being whom only a Creator could put here; and this idea of a creating hand refers to God.’

Students of existentialism, the atheistic branch, will note that in this one sentence Sartre disavowed his entire system, his engagements, his whole life. Voltaire converted on his deathbed; one never knows, the brilliant old rascal is supposed to have said.

… The epilogue is much less edifying. His mistress, Simone de Beauvoir, behaved like a bereaved widow during the funeral. Then she published La cérémonie des adieux in which she turned vicious, attacking Sartre. He resisted Victor’s seduction, she recounts, then he yielded. ‘How should one explain this senile act of a turncoat?’, she asks stupidly. And she adds: ‘All my friends, all the Sartreans, and the editorial team of Les Temps Modernes supported me in my consternation.’

Mme. de Beauvoir’s consternation v. Sartre’s conversion. The balance is infinitely heavier on the side of the blind, yet seeing, old man.” (National Review, June 11, 1982, p. 677, article by Thomas Molnar - Professor of French and world literature at Brooklyn College; see also McDowell and Stewart 1990, 477).


 Sartre, Jean-Paul. 1988. “Existentialism Is a Humanism,” in An Introduction to Modern Philosophy. Alburey Castell and Donald M. Borchert - editors. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1988.

McDowell, Josh and Don Stewart, eds. 1990. Concise Guide to Today’s Religions. Amersham-on-the-Hill, Bucks, England: Scripture Press. (First published in the USA by Here’s Life Publishers, Inc., 1983).


28. SIGRID UNDSET, Nobel Laureate in Literature:

“ ‘He came to his own, and his own did not receive him. But as many as received him, to them he gave power to be the children of God.’ This is the Catholic faith, that an act of the will on the part of man is unconditionally necessary before he can be saved. …By his will, man turned from God; with his will he turns back to him. God pours out his saving grace for us because of love alone and not because in the least measure we have deserved or earned it; the Catholic Church teaches nothing else.” (Undset 1993).


Undset, Sigrid. 1993. “Catholic Propaganda.” In Sigrid Undset: On Saints and Sinners. (Proceedings of the Wethersfield Institute; Deal W. Hudson - Editor). Volume 6, pp. 232-272. Ignatius Press. San Francisco, CA.


30. ISAAC B. SINGER, Nobel Laureate in Literature:

1. ¨ In his Nobel Lecture (8 December 1978, Les Prix Nobel 1978), Isaac Bashevis Singer said:

“I can never accept the idea that the Universe is a physical or chemical accident, a result of blind evolution. Even though I learned to recognize the lies, the clichés and the idolatries of the human mind, I still cling to some truths which I think all of us might accept some day. There must be a way for man to attain all possible pleasures, all the powers and knowledge that nature can grant him, and still serve God - a God who speaks in deeds, not in words, and whose vocabulary is the Cosmos.” (Singer 1979).

2. ¨ “I’m a sceptic. I’m a sceptic about making a better world. When it comes to this business where you tell me that this-or-that régime, one sociological order or another, will bring happiness to people, I know that it will never work, call it by any name you want. People will remain people, and they have remained people under communism and all other kinds of ‘isms.’

But I’m not a sceptic when it comes to belief in God. I do believe. I always did. That there is a plan, a consciousness behind creation, that it’s not an accident.” (Singer, as cited in The Brothers Singer by Clive Sinclair, London, Allison and Busby, 1983, p. 30).


Singer, Isaac Bashevis. 1979. Nobel Lecture (December 8, 1978), in Les Prix Nobel 1978. The Nobel Foundation. Stockholm, Sweden: Almqvist & Wiksell International. (See also Nobel Lectures in Literature 1968-1980. Sture Allen - editor. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. 1994).

Sinclair, Clive. 1983. The Brothers Singer. London, New York: Allison and Busby.





31. ALBERT SCHWEITZER, Nobel Laureate for Peace: 

1. ¨ In his sermon given at Lambaréné in 1947 on the Sunday following the Feast of Saint John, Dr. Schweitzer said:

“If there should come a man who was king of all the world - Europe, America, Asia, Africa - he would not be the greatest of men. The true grandeur of a man is to understand the heart of God. John had spoken the words of God when he said that now is the time when the kingdom of God should come. He was greater than any of the prophets because his heart was filled with the spirit of God. The others said that it was still night, and they did not know when the dawn would come. John, in the middle of the night, said, ‘The sun will rise’...

O God, we can never thank you enough for the great preacher of the kingdom of God whom you have sent, the man who gave us an example, the man who had strength to put into our hearts, the man who was the servant of God. May he make us servants of God. We thank you for all the riches that you have put within us. Give us to understand these riches. May we desire to have your strength within us. Give us then the will to be thy children. Amen!” (Schweitzer, as cited in The Africa of Albert Schweitzer, by Charles Joy and Melvin Arnold, chapter “The Feast of Saint John”, The Beacon Press, 1948).


Joy, Charles and Melvin Arnold. 1948. The Africa of Albert Schweitzer. Boston: The Beacon Press, 1948.


32. THEODORE ROOSEVELT, Nobel Laureate for Peace:

1. ¨ Theodore Roosevelt, America’s 26th president, wrote:

“Fear God and take your own part! Fear God, in the true sense of the word, means to love God, respect God, honor God; and all of this can only be done by loving our neighbor, treating him justly and mercifully, and in all ways endeavoring to protect him from injustice and cruelty, thus obeying, as far as our human frailty will permit, the great and immutable law of righteousness.” (Theodore Roosevelt, The Theodore Roosevelt Treasury, New York, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, Hermann Hagedorn - editor, 1953, p. 322).

2. ¨ “Christianity after all must largely be the attempt to realize that noble verse of Micah, ‘What more doth the Lord require of thee than to do justly and to love mercy and to walk humbly with thy God?’.

This verse has always been a favorite of mine, because it embodies the Gospel of Works, with the necessary antidote in the last few words to that hard spiritual arrogance which is brought about by mere reliance on the Gospel of Works.” (Roosevelt 1953, 322).


Roosevelt, Theodore. 1953. The Theodore Roosevelt Treasury. Hermann Hagedorn - editor. New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.


33. WOODROW WILSON, Nobel Laureate for Peace:

1. ¨ “From the laws of the Old and New Testaments every civilized nation has taken the foundation of its laws. At no time can any nation be prosperous whose laws are not founded upon these eternal principles of right and wrong, of justice and injustice, of civil and religious liberty.

Above all, in these pages may be found the most perfect rule of life the mind can conceive. Dimly through the Old, and brilliantly through the New Testament, shines the principle of love to God as the foundation and cause of men’s duties to God, to each other, and to their own souls. One who forms his every-day life after the perfect model of Christ’s life will himself be a model which no man can afford to despise, besides thereby gaining for himself an assurance of everlasting life.” (Woodrow Wilson, The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, 1966, Vol. 1, p. 185, Arthur S. Link - editor, Princeton University Press).


Link, Arthur S., ed. 1966. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson. Volume 1. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.


33. Nelson Mandela, Nobel Laureate for Peace: 

1. ¨ In his speech at the Zionist Christian Church Easter Conference (Moria, April 3, 1994) Nelson Mandela stated:

“We bow our heads in worship on this day and give thanks to the Almighty for the bounty He has bestowed upon us over the past year. We raise our voices in holy gladness to celebrate the victory of the risen Christ over the terrible forces of death.

Easter is a joyful festival!

It is a celebration because it is indeed a festival of hope!

Easter marks the renewal of life!

The triumph of the light of truth over the darkness of falsehood!

Easter is a festival of human solidarity, because it celebrates the fulfilment of the Good News!

The Good News borne by our risen Messiah who chose not one race, who chose not one country, who chose not one language, who chose not one tribe, who chose all of humankind!

We pray with you for the blessings of human solidarity, because there are so many who wish to divide us!

We pray with you for the blessings of reconciliation among all the people of South Africa!” (Mandela 1994).


Mandela, Nelson. 1994. Speech at the Zionist Christian Church Easter Conference (Moria, 3 April 1994). African National Congress (ANC Historical Documents Archive). Johannesburg, South Africa.


35. KIM DAE-JUNG, Nobel Laureate for Peace:

1.                  ¨ In a letter sent to his second son, Hong-up, on November 24, 1980, after Kim Dae-jung was sentenced to death, he wrote: “Only the truly magnanimous and strong are capable of forgiving and loving. Let us persevere, then, praying always that God will help us to have the strength to love and forgive our enemies. Let us together, in this way, become the loving victors.” (Kim Dae-jung, Prison Writings, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987, p. 6).


Kim Dae-jung. 1987. Prison Writings. Berkeley: University of California Press.



36. DAG HAMMARSKJÖLD, Nobel Laureate for Peace:

1. ¨             “Give me a pure heart that I may see Thee,

A humble heart that I may hear Thee,

A heart of love that I may serve Thee,

A heart of faith that I may abide in Thee.”


(From Hammarskjöld’s prayer in Markings, New York, Alfred A. Knopf, translation - W. H. Auden and Leif Sjoberg, 1964, p. 100).


37.  MARTIN LUTHER KING JR., Nobel Laureate for Peace:

1. ¨ Martin Luther King closed his last speech “I’ve been to the Mountain Top” (April 3, 1968, Memphis, Tennessee) with the words:

“I don’t know what will happen now. We’ve got some difficult days ahead. But it really doesn’t matter with me now, because I’ve been to the mountain top. And I don’t mind. Like anybody, I would like to live a long life; longevity has its place. But I’m not concerned about that now. I just want to do God’s will. And He’s allowed me to go up to the mountain. And I’ve looked over. And I’ve seen the Promised Land. I may not get there with you. But I want you to know tonight, that we as a people will get to the Promised Land. And so I’m happy tonight, I’m not worried about anything. I’m not fearing any man. Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord.” (Excerpt from Dr. King’s last speech, before he was assassinated on April 4; see The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr., NY, Newmarket Press, 1983, p. 94).


King, Martin Luther, Jr. 1983. The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr. (Selected by Coretta Scott King). New York: Newmarket Press.


38. JOHN R. MOTT, Nobel Laureate for Peace: 

1. ¨ “If our Gospel is the truth, we are under obligation to propagate it. If it is not the truth we ought to forsake it. To attempt to occupy middle ground is not simply inconsistency but is the most dangerous form of hypocrisy.” (John R. Mott, The Pastor and Modern Missions: A Plea for Leadership in World Evangelization, NY, Student Volunteer Movement, 1904).

“All men need Christ. We have Christ. We owe Christ to all men. To know our duty and to do it not is sin. Continuance in the sin of neglect necessarily weakens the life and arrests the growth. To fail to do our duty then with reference to the peculiar opportunity of our generation means the promotion of spiritual atrophy.” (Mott, 1904).


Mott, John R. 1904. The Pastor and Modern Missions: A Plea for Leadership in World Evangelization, New York: Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions.


39. NATHAN SÖDERBLOM, Nobel Laureate for Peace: 

1. ¨             “Lord,

Be before us to lead us,

Be behind us to encourage us,

Be beneath us to carry us,

Be above us to bless us,

Be around us to protect us,

Be within us so that in body and soul

We may serve you for the glory of your Name.”

(Söderblom, as cited in Etchegaray 2000, 4).


Etchegaray, Cardinal Roger. 2000. “All is Possible When We Rely on Christ.” L'Osservatore Romano (Weekly Edition in English), 2 February 2000, p. 4, The Cathedral Foundation, Baltimore, MD.


40. JIMMY CARTER, Nobel Laureate for Peace: 

1. ¨ “The Gospels recount how Jesus, having lived a perfect and blameless life, accepted a death of horrible suffering on the cross on our behalf, as an atonement for the sins we have committed. Accepting Christ as my savior means believing all these things and entering into a relationship with God through him, so that my past and future sins no longer alienate me from my Creator.

Putting our total faith in these concepts is what is meant by being ‘born again.’ It’s when there is an intimate melding of my life with that of Jesus: I become a brother with him, and God is our mutual parent. This frees me from the strings that previously limited my relationship with my Creator.” (Carter 1998, 20).


Carter, Jimmy. 1998. Living Faith. NY: Times Books/Random House.

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